Romania - Facts and Figures
- Historical (Summary)
The principalities of Wallachia and Moldavia - for centuries under the suzerainty of the Turkish Ottoman Empire - secured their autonomy in 1856; they united in 1859 and a few years later adopted the new name of Romania. The country gained recognition of its independence in 1878. It joined the Allied Powers in World War I and acquired new territories following the conflict. In 1940, it allied with the Axis powers and participated in the 1941 German invasion of the USSR. Three years later, overrun by the Soviets, Romania signed an armistice. The post-war Soviet occupation led to the formation of a Communist "people's republic" in 1947 and the abdication of the king. The decades-long rule of dictator Nicolae Ceausescu , who took power in 1965, and his Securitate police state became increasingly oppressive and draconian through the 1980s. Ceausescu was overthrown and executed in late 1989.
For more details about Romanias History before 1989, visit the History Section of our website.
In 2000, the center-left Social Democratic Party (PSD) became Romania's leading party, governing with the support of the Democratic Union of Hungarians in Romania (UDMR). The opposition center-right alliance formed by the National Liberal Party (PNL) and the Democratic Party (PD) scored a surprise victory over the ruling PSD in December 2004 presidential elections. The PNL-PD alliance maintains a parliamentary majority with the support of the UDMR, the Humanist Party (PUR), and various ethnic minority groups. Romania completed accession talks with the European Union (EU) in December 2004 - hope of joining the EU, tentatively set for 2007. Romania joined NATO in March of 2004.
Southeastern Europe, bordering the Black Sea, between Bulgaria and Ukraine
- Geographic coordinates:
46,00° N, 25,00° E
- total: 237.500 km 2
- land: 230.340 km2
- water: 7.160 km2
- Land boundaries:
- total: 2.508 km
- border countries: Bulgaria 608 km, Hungary 443 km, Moldova 450 km, Serbia and Montenegro 476 km, Ukraine (north) 362 km, Ukraine (east) 169 km
- total: 2.508 km
- Coastline: 225 km
- Maritime claims:
- territorial sea: 12 nm
- contiguous zone: 24 nm
- exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
- continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
temperate; cold, cloudy winters with frequent snow and fog; sunny summers with frequent showers and thunderstorms
- Terrain: central Transylvanian Basin is separated from the Plain of Moldavia on the east by the Carpathian Mountains and separated from the Walachian Plain on the south by the Transylvanian Alps
- Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Black Sea 0 m
highest point: Moldoveanu 2.544 m
- Population: 22.5 Mio. people
- Country name: Romania
- Government type: Republic
- Capital: Bucharest
- Administrative divisions:
41 counties (judete, singular - judet) and the municipality of Bucharest (Municipiul Bucuresti); Alba, Arad, Arges, Bacau, Bihor, Bistrita-Nasaud, Botosani, Braila, Brasov, Bucuresti (Bucharest), Buzau, Calarasi, Caras-Severin, Cluj, Constanta, Covasna, Dimbovita, Dolj, Galati, Gorj, Giurgiu, Harghita, Hunedoara, Ialomita, Iasi, Ilfov, Maramures, Mehedinti, Mures, Neamt, Olt, Prahova, Salaj, Satu Mare, Sibiu, Suceava, Teleorman, Timis, Tulcea, Vaslui, Valcea, Vrancea
9. May 1877 (independence proclaimed from the Ottoman Empire; independence recognized 13 July 1878 by the Treaty of Berlin; kingdom proclaimed 26 March 1881); 30 December 1947 (republic proclaimed)
- National holiday:
Unification Day (of Romania and Transylvania, Romanian: "Ziua Unirii"), 1 December (1918)
8. December 1991; revision effective 29 .October 2003
- Legal system:
former mixture of civil law system and communist legal theory; is now based on the constitution of France's Fifth Republic.
- Flag description:
three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side), yellow, and red; the national coat of arms that used to be centered in the yellow band has been removed; now similar to the flag of Chad, also resembles the flags of Andorra and Moldova.
- Country name: Romania